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Simple First Aid

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Simple First Aid

Post  Warloque on Fri Jul 10, 2009 2:24 pm

How to Stop a Bleed



* Bleeding or haemorrhaging is simply blood escaping from its vessels.

* There are varying degrees of seriousness.

* The main method of arresting the blood flow is by applying direct pressure.



Applying Direct Pressure

* This is one of the most effective ways of stopping severe bleeding in almost any part of the body.

* Place the palm or fingers over the bleeding point and apply direct pressure.

* The bleeding will usually stop after a while.

* Do not use the method if there is a foreign body in the wound or if a fracture is suspected.

* With this method, there is also a slight risk of introducing germs into the wound. To prevent this, place a clean piece of material like lint or gauze over the wound before applying pressure.




Treating Burns and Scalds



* Reduce the spread of heat, pain and swelling by placing the burnt area under cold running water or immersing it in cold water for at least 10 minutes.

* Gently remove any rings, watches, belts or constricting clothing from the injured area before it starts to swell.

* Cover the injured area with clean, preferably sterile, non- fluffy material.

* A burnt face may be covered with a gauze mask, with holes cut into it to assist the victim in breathing.



* Do not break blisters or remove anything that is sticking to a burn.

* Do not apply lotions, ointments or fat to the injured area.

NOTE: For severe burns, call 995 for an emergency ambulance.





Treating Fractures




What is a Fracture?

A fracture is a broken or cracked bone. There are a number of signs and symptoms, which can indicate that a person has a fracture:

* Pain.

* The injured part cannot be moved normally.

* The injured part may have an unnatural shape or position.

* There is swelling and sometimes bruising.

* There is loss of strength.

* There may be an irregularity or shortening of the affected limb.



First Aid for Fractures

Treat severe bleeding and breathing difficulties first and only then immobilise the injured part


1. Treat severe bleeding and difficulty in breathing first.

2. Treat on the spot. Avoid unnecessary movement.

3. Immobilise the injured part; splint the joint above and the joint below the injury.





Transporting Casualties Without Using a Stretcher

Where stretchers are not available or cannot be improvised, you may have to transport casualties the ‘manual’ way. There are several methods you can use depending on the situation:


Victim can walk with some assistance


Human Crutch

* This method is used to move victims who are conscious and able to walk with some assistance.

* Hold him firmly around the waist and use your shoulders to support his arm, while he rests his body weight on you.



Victim is lightweight


Fireman’s Lift

* This is suitable for victims who are lightweight, either conscious or unconscious.

* Stoop low, bend the victim over your shoulders and lift him up. For more stability, wrap your arm around his leg as you hold his arm over your chest.




Victim is lightweight and conscious


Pick-a-back

* If the victim is conscious, lightweight and able to hold on using her arms, this is an excellent method to transport her.

* You should ensure stability in this position by firmly grasping the victim behind the knees, with her arms held together securely across your chest.




Victim is a child / lightweight adult


Cradle Method

* Use this method if the victim is a child or a lightweight adult.

* The victim will be in the most comfortable position if you slip your arms under her thighs and shoulders.
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